Under a punitive postwar peace treaty signed in August 1920, the Allied powers stripped all Arab provinces from the Ottoman Empire, provided for an independent Armenia and an autonomous Kurdistan, put the Greeks in charge of a region surrounding Smyrna (now Izmir) and asserted economic control over what little country remained. However, Mustafa Kemal had already organized an independence movement based in Ankara, the goal of which was to end foreign occupation of the Turkish-speaking areas and to stop them from being partitioned. The sultan’s government in Istanbul sentenced Mustafa Kemal to death in absentia, but it failed to prevent him from building up both military and popular support. With the help of money and weapons from Soviet Russia, his troops crushed the Armenians in the east and forced the French and Italians to withdraw from the south. He then turned his attention to the Greeks, who had wreaked havoc on the Turkish population during their march to within 50 miles of Ankara.
In August and September 1921, with Mustafa Kemal at the head of the army, the Turks stopped the Greek advance at the Battle of Sakarya. The following August, they launched an offensive that broke the Greek lines and sent them into a full-scale retreat all the way back to Smyrna on the Mediterranean Sea. A fire soon broke out in Smyrna, which, along with looting and rampaging Turkish soldiers, claimed the lives of thousands of Greek and Armenian residents. Roughly 200,000 additional Greeks and Armenians were forced to evacuate on nearby Allied warships, never to return.
Mustafa Kemal next threatened to attack Istanbul, which was being occupied by the British and other Allied powers. Rather than fight, the British agreed to negotiate a new peace treaty and sent invitations to both the sultan’s government in Istanbul and Mustafa Kemal’s government in Ankara. But before the peace conference could begin, the Grand National Assembly in Ankara passed a resolution declaring that the sultan’s rule had already ended. Fearful for his life, the last Ottoman sultan fled his palace in a British ambulance. A new peace treaty was then signed in July 1923 that recognized an independent Turkish state. That October, the Grand National Assembly proclaimed the Republic of Turkey and elected Mustafa Kemal as its first president.
The Sultan chicken is a very old breed. It is an ornamental breed originating in Turkey. It is known as the Serai Taook in it’s native area and also called Serai Tavuk. The breed is very popular in Turkey. Sultan chickens are highly ornamental and the white birds were a favorite of Turkish Royalty for keeping in their gardens and were known as Sultans Fowl. The breed first arrived in England in 1854. And first came to America in 1867. The breed was first recognized by the American Poultry Association and was admitted into it’s Standard of Perfection in 1874.
Today Sultan chicken is a very rare breed and also used for exhibition. It is listed as Critical on the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy’s Conservation Priority List. Review full breed profile, characteristics, behavior and temperament of Sultan chicken below.
Sultan chicken is a small, beautiful, fully feathered bird. It has a very special appearance with beautiful plumage. It’s decorative plumage includes;large, puffy crests, long tails, beards and profuse foot feathering. They have smaller and bright red colored V-Shaped combs. Their combs are almost entirely hidden under feathering. The neck has a very heavy plumage which gives the head a shortened appearance. They have smaller sized, bright red colored wattles and earlobes.
The head has a muff, three clumps of feathers which form a beard and a very large, globular crest. Sultan chicken has red colored face, and it is one of a minority of chicken breeds which has five toes on each foot. The breed appear in three color varieties; Black, Blue and White. But the White variety is most popular and well known. Sultan chicken breed also has a bantam version. On an average, standard Sultan cocks weight about 2.75 kg and hens about 1.8 kg. And the bantam cocks weight about 0.74 kg and hens about 0.625 kg. Photo from Wikipedia.
Sultan chicken is a very calm, docile and friendly bird. Both males and females are very easy to tame and handle. And also very good as pets and backyard ornamental birds. They are not among the very good foragers, and do very well in confinement. They need special care and dry bedding for protecting their elaborate feathering, especially on their feet. Sultan hens are not among the good egg layers, and do not generally go broody. Hens lay medium sized white eggs. The chicks are slow growing, and take long time for developing. They are good fliers and fences are must for keeping them confined. The Sultan chicken once had a reputation for being a good meat bird, with the breast being large and the flesh being white and delicate. Review full breed profile of Sultan chicken below.
Sultan Chicken | Breed Profile
|Other Name||Serai Taook, Serai Tavuk|
|Breed Temperament||Bears Confinement Well, Easy to Handle, Flighty, Friendly, Quiet, Docile|
|Varieties||Pure White (Also has Black and Blue varieties)|
|Country of Origin||Turkey|