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The Bark Beetles Fuels And Fire Bibliography Generator

Abstract

There is little quantitative information on relationships between insect attacks and fire damage for ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the southwestern United States. Tree mortality and insect attacks were measured on 1,367 trees for three years after a spring wildfire (4 May 1996), a summer wildfire (20 June 1996), and a fall prescribed fire (9 September 1995) in northern Arizona. Western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae Hopkins, round headed pine beetle, D. adjunctus Blandford, red turpentine beetle, D. valens LeConte, Ips species, and wood borers in the Buprestidae and Cerambycidae families were found in fire-damaged trees. The most frequently occurring insects, listed from most to least frequent, were wood borers, red turpentine beetle, Ips spp., western pine beetle, roundheaded pine beetle, and mountain pine beetle. Trees attacked by Dendroctonus and Ips spp. as a group had more crown damage from fire than unattacked trees. The percentage of trees attacked by Dendroctonus and Ips species was lowest during the fall fire (11%, 25 of 222 trees), intermediate during the summer fire (19%, 154 of 833 trees), and highest during the spring fire (41%, 127 of 312 trees). More than one-half of all wood borer colonization (58%) and attacks by western pine beetle (68%), roundheaded pine beetle (56%), and Ips spp. (66%) occurred in the first year after the fire. Measures of tree damage from fire and insect attacks were used to develop logistic regression models of tree mortality to quantitatively investigate factors that influenced tree mortality. Tree mortality 3 yr postfire was low until crown damage by fire exceeded 70–80% for unattacked trees, 40–50% for trees with partial attacks by Dendroctonus and Ips species, and 30–40% for trees with mass attacks. We concluded that several Dendroctonus and Ips species colonize fire-damaged ponderosa pines in northern Arizona and colonization is promoted by heavy crown damage from fire.

Introduction

Forest fires are a common disturbance agent in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson, forests of the western United States, and often cause considerable tree damage and mortality. Firecan kill a tree by damage to the roots, bole, or crown. Severe damageto oneof thesetissues or light to moderate damage to more than one can lead to post fire tree mortality (Ryan 1990, 1998, 2000). However, tree mortality is not caused solely by the direct effects of fire; bark beetle attacks on living trees after fire have been a concern for forest managers for quite some time (e.g., Miller and Patterson 1927). Trees weakened by fire damage have been reported to be more susceptible to attack from some secondary mortality agents, such as bark beetles and fungal pathogens (Miller and Patterson 1927, Miller and Keen 1960, Furniss and Carolin 1977, Geiszler et al. 1980, Littke and Gara 1986, Thomas and Agee 1986, Amman and Ryan 1991, Agee 1993, McCullough et al. 1998, Ryan 1998, Wallin et al. 2003). Moreover, understanding of the role of fire in bark beetle populations is limited because many factors may influence bark beetle colonization and performance in fire-damaged trees (e.g., Miller and Keen 1960, McCullough et al. 1998, DeNitto et al. 2000, Wallin et al. 2003).

Models of tree mortality after fire have been developed for numerous conifer species in the western United States (Reinhardt and Ryan 1988, Ryan and Reinhardt 1988, Harrington 1993, Finney and Martin 1993, Stephens and Finney 2002). These models typically use measures of fire damage, tree size, or species-specific measures of fire resistance to predict tree mortality. Despite considerable research on quantitative modeling of tree mortality after fire (Wyant et al. 1986; Harrington 1987, 1993; Reinhardt and Ryan 1988; Ryan and Reinhardt 1988; Ryan et al. 1988; Ryan 1998; Stephens and Finney 2002), use of insect attacks in such models has been limited to a few species and regions. Peterson and Arbaugh (1986) developed a logistic regression model for Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco, that used crown scorch and insect damage to predict tree mortality after fire in the northern Rocky Mountains. Menges and Deyrup (2001) used path analysis to explore relationships among bark beetle attacks, fire characteristics, and vegetation structure in Florida slash pine, Pinus elliiottii variety densa.Bradley and Tueller (2001) used logistic regression to model attacks on Jeffery pine, Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf., by red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonous valens LeConte, Jeffery pine bark beetle, Dendroctonous jeffreyi Hopkins, and Ips species based on fire damageand intensity in Lake Tahoe, NV.

For ponderosa pine, previous studies have reported bark beetles in fire-damaged trees but often did not identify insect species or relate beetle attacks to levels of firedamage(Connaughton 1936, Morris and Mowat 1958, Dieterich 1979, Regelbrugge and Conard 1993). Ponderosa pines moderately damaged by fire in southern Oregon were more susceptible to attack by western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, than lightly damaged trees (Miller and Patterson 1927). Miller and Keen (1960) reported that crown scorch levels above 50% increased ponderosa pine susceptibility to attack by western pine beetle after fire in California, Idaho, and southern Oregon. Wallin et al. (2003) reported that crown scorch >75% in ponderosa pine reduced resin defenses and tree resistance to attacks by Dendroctonus and Ips species compared with lower amounts of scorch in one northern Arizona wildfire. Studies of other pine species have also shown a positive relationship between tree crown damage by fire and bark beetle attacks (Amman and Ryan 1991; Ryan and Amman 1994,1996; Rasmussen et al. 1996; Bradley and Tueller 2001; Menges and Deyrup 2001; Santoro et al. 2001; Hanula et al. 2002).

Roundheaded pine beetle, Dendroctonus adjunctus Blandford], western pine beetle, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, red turpentine beetle, Ips species, and wood borers in the Buprestidae and Cerambycidae families are common subcortical insects that colonize ponderosa pine in northern Arizona. At endemic population levels, most Ips and Dendroctonus species attack highly stressed trees or felled trees, whereas at epidemic population levels, they can colonize healthy trees (e.g., Wood 1972, 1982; Raffa and Berryman 1982, 1983; Bentz et al. 1996). Wood borers in the Buprestidae and Cerambycidae families primarily use bark and xylem of dead or dying trees (Schmid and Parker 1990, Rasmussen et al. 1996, Powell et al. 2002).

The objective of our study was to examine relationships between fire damage to ponderosa pine and attacks by bark beetles and woodborers over a 3-yr period after three fires in northern Arizona forests. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the role of crown damage by fire and insect attacks in tree mortality.

Materials and Methods

Study Sites

The fall fire was a prescribed fire that was ignited 9 September 1995 and burned until 11 September 1995. The fall fire was located on the Peaks Ranger District, Coconino National Forest, ≈24 km west of Flagstaff, at a latitude of 35° 17.5′ N and a longitude of 111° 52.5′W (Fig. 1). The study site was 23.8 ha in size at an elevation range of 2225–2255 m. Aspect is generally south-southeast with slopes of 0–8%. Soils within the study area are fine, montmorillonitic Typic Argiborolls, and are gravely loams derived from residual basalt/cinder parent material (Miller et al. 1995). Vegetation at this site is a ponderosa pine-bunch grass type (USDA Forest Service 1997), with ponderosa pine as the only tree species. Ponderosa pine in the study area ranged from 7.4 cm to 44.5 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH); a few larger old-growth trees were scattered throughout the site.

Fig. 1.

Study site locations. The Side Study Area (spring wildfire) burned in the spring 1996, the Bridger Knoll Study Area (summer wildfire) burned in the summer 1996, and the Dauber Study Area (fall prescribed fire) burned in the fall 1995.

Fig. 1.

Study site locations. The Side Study Area (spring wildfire) burned in the spring 1996, the Bridger Knoll Study Area (summer wildfire) burned in the summer 1996, and the Dauber Study Area (fall prescribed fire) burned in the fall 1995.

The spring wild fire occurred 4 May 1996 and was located on the Peaks Ranger District, Coconino National Forest (latitude 35° 15.0′ N, longitude 111° 35.0′ W) (Fig. 1). The study site was in an 80-ha portion of the 130-ha Side wild fire at an elevation range of 2072– 2195 m. Site aspect is predominately flat except where dissected by two east-west running intermittent stream courses. Soils are mixed Mollic Eutroboralfs, and are very stoney, sandy loams derived from alluvium, mixed igneous parent material (Miller et al. 1995). Vegetation at this site was a ponderosa pine-cliffrose type(USDA Forest Service 1997) with ponderosa pine as the dominant tree species. Ponderosa pine in the study area ranged in DBH between 10.2 and 91.4 cm. Unlike the fall prescribed fire, mature ponderosa pines occurred throughout the study area as scattered trees and groups of 5–20 trees.

The summer wild fire started 20 June 1996 and was located on the North Kaibab Ranger District, Kaibab National Forest, ≈32 km south-southwest of Jacob Lake, AZ at a centroid latitude of 36° 35′ N and a longitude of 111° 23' W (Fig. 1). This fire burned until 28 June 1996, when changing weather conditions stopped its spread. The study site was 6,475 ha of the 21,449-ha Bridger-Knoll wildfire. Elevation for the area ranged between 2134 and 2255 m. All aspects were represented and slope percent ranged between 0% and 20% in bottomland areas to over 40% on ridge tops. Soils are clayey-skeletal and fine montmorillonitic, Mollic Eutroboalfs, loams and gravely loams, derived from residuum limestone parent material (Brewer et al. 1991). Vegetation at the site was a ponderosa pinegambel oak type (USDA Forest Service 1997) with ponderosa pine the dominant tree species. DBH ranged between 22.9 and 106.2 cm.

Mean annual precipitation for the fall and spring fire areas is 57.9 cm with a mean annual snowfall of 276.4 cm (NOAA 1997), and, for the months of January and July, the mean daily minimum and maximum temperatures are -9.2°C and 5.7°C and 10.1°C and 27.7°C, respectively (NOAA 1997). Mean annual precipitation for the summer fire area is 52.5 cm with a mean annual snowfall of 267.7 cm, and for the months of January and July, the mean daily minimum and maximum temperatures are -9.1°C and 4.4°C, and 10.3°C and 26.3°C, respectively (National Climatic Data Center, station 024418, http://www.wrcc.dri.edu).

Fire Behavior and Intensity

Because of the opportunistic nature of this study, direct observations of fire behavior characteristics, such as flame length, are not available. Instead, BEHAVE version 4.4 (Andrews 1986), a fire behavior prediction model, was used to predict the possible range of fire characteristics that occurred across each site. We used BEHAVE to predict fire behavior in the flaming front based on the following inputs: Northern Forest Fire Laboratory (NFFL) fire behavior fuel models (Anderson 1982), percent fuel moisture content of the 1-, 10-, and 100-h time lag fuels (Fosberg and Deeming 1971, Rothermel 1983), midflame windspeed (Rothermel 1983), and percent slope (Table 1). Required fuel moisture and wind data for the model were obtained from USDA Forest Service records for each fire.

Table 1.

Fuel model, fuel moisture, slope, and windspeed values used in the fire behavior model BEHAVE to predict the range of fire characteristics experienced across the study sites

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Fireline intensity, because of its relation to flame length, is best used to express fire effects on materials affected by convective heating, such as foliage (Van Wagener 1973, Finney and Martin 1993). Agee (1993) provides ranges of fireline intensity for surface fire (0–258 kW m1), understory fire (258–2,800 kW m1), and crown fire(>2,800 kW m1). Based on the secriteria, the fall fire was primarily a surface fire that reached the crowns of occasional trees, whereas the spring and summer fires varied from surface to crown fires (Table 1).

The fall fire was a prescribed burn of both natural and activity fuels (fuels generated from logging activity). Strip ignitions designed to create strip head fires were initially used to ignite the area. Later into the ignition phase, lighting patterns were changed to cause low-intensity backing fires. The 1-, 100,100-, and 1,000-h time-lag moisture classes (Fosberg and Deeming 1971

Bark beetle outbreaks have resulted in the loss of hundreds of thousands of conifers on approximately 30 million hectares of forested lands in western North America during the last decade. Many forests remain susceptible to bark beetle infestation and will continue to experience high levels of conifer mortality until suitable host trees are depleted, or natural factors cause populations to collapse. Stand conditions and drought, combined with warming temperatures, have contributed to the severity of these outbreaks, particularly in high-elevation forests.


Conventional wisdom suggests that large scale bark beetle outbreaks alter fuel complexes resulting in an increased potential for severe fires. Conversely, fires damage trees that may predispose them to bark beetle attack. In reality there is little specific quantified data supporting these assertions, and until recently, relationships between fire and western bark beetles in forests of North America have not been extensively studied. The magnitude of recent outbreaks and large wildfires has resulted in a flurry of research attempting to quantify bark beetle/fire/fuel interactions.

 

We hope and expect that our freely accessible, online bibliography may be of great benefit to any scholarly research. The bibliography searching can be conducted through titles, by author name, or by descriptive words. Where possible, full text of the documents are provided as PDF documents.

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2018

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Visitor Preferences for Visual Changes in Bark Beetle-Impacted Forest Recreation Settings in the United States and Germany, Arne Arnberger, Martin Ebenberger, Ingrid E. Schneider, Stuart Cottrell, Alexander A. Snyder, Eick von Ruschkowski, Robert C. Venette, Stephanie A. Snyder, and Paul H. Gobster; Environmental Management

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Historical and Event-Based Bioclimatic Suitability Predict Regional Forest Vulnerability to Compound Effects of Severe Drought and Bark Beetle Infestation, F Lloret and T Kitzberger; Global Change Biology

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Bark Beetles as Agents of Change in Social–Ecological Systems, Jesse L. Morris, Stuart Cottrell, Christopher J. Fettig, Justin R. DeRose, Katherine M. Mattor, Vachel A. Carter, Jennifer Clear, Jessica Clement, Winslow D. Hansen, Jeffrey A. Hicke, Philip E. Higuera, Alistair WR Seddon, Heikki Seppä, Rosemary L. Sherriff, John D. stednick, and Steven J. Seybold; Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment

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Bark Beetle-Induced Tree Mortality Alters Stand Energy Budgets Due to Water Budget Changes, David E. Reed, Brent E. Ewers, Elise Pendall, John Frank, and Robert Kelly; Theoretical and Applied Climatology

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Colonization of Weakened Trees by Mass-Attacking Bark Beetles: No Penalty for Pioneers, Scattered Initial Distributions and Final Regular Patterns, Ettienne Toffin, Edith Gabriel, Marceau Louis, Jean Louis Deneubourg, and Jeane Claude Gregoire; Royal Society Open Science

2017

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Forest Response to Water Availability and Disturbance in the Western United States, Logan T. Berner

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Tree Mortality from Fires, Bark Beetles, and Timber Harvest During a Hot and Dry Decade in the Western United States (2003–2012), Logan T. Berner, Beverly E. Law, Arjan JH Meddens, and Jeffrey A. Hicke; Environmental Research Letters

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Effects of Elevation and Aspect on the Flight Activity of Two Alien Pine Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Recently-harvested Pine Forests, E. G. Brockerhoff, F. Chinellatoa, M. Faccolia, M. Kimberleyc, and S. M. Pawsona; Forest Ecology and Management

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Climate Drivers of Bark Beetle Outbreak Dynamics in Norway Spruce Forests, Lorenzo Marini, Bjørn Økland, Anna Maria Jönsson, Barbara Bentz, Allan Carroll, Beat Forster, Jean Claude Grégoire, Rainer Hurling, Louis Michel Nageleisen, Sigrid Netherer, Hans Peter Ravn, Aaron Weed, and Martin Schroeder; Ecography

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Interactions Among Fuel Management, Species Composition, Bark Beetles, and Climate Change and the Potential Effects on Forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin, Robert M. Scheller, Alec M. Ktretchun, E Louise Loudermilk, Matther D. Hurteau, Peter J. Weisberg, and Carl Skinner; Ecosystems

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Climate Change Amplifies the Interactions Between Wind and Bark Beetle Disturbances in Forest Landscapes, Rupert Seidl and Werner Rammer; Landscape Ecology

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Fires Following Bark Beetles: Factors Controlling Severity and Disturbance Interactions in Ponderosa Pine, Carolyn H. Sieg, Rodman R. Linn, Francois Pimont, Chad M. Hoffman, Joel D. McMillan, Judith Winterkamp, and L Scott Baggett; Fire Ecology

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Severity of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Across a Range of Stand Conditions in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, United States, Anthony G. Vorster, Paul H. Evangelista, Thomas J. Stonlgren, Sunil Kumara, Charles C. Rhoades, Robert M. Hubbard, Antony S. Cheng, and Kelly Elder; Forest Ecology and Management

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The Influence of Forest Management Systems on the Abundance and Diversity of Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Commercial Plantations of Sitka Spruce, David T. Williams, Nigel Straw, Nick Fielding, Martin Jukes, and John Price; Forest Ecology and Management

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On the Structural and Species Diversity Effects of Bark Beetle Disturbance in Forests During Initial and Advanced Early-Seral Stages at Different Scales, Maria Barbara Winter, Claus Bässler, Markus Bernhardt Römermann, Franz Sebastian Krah, Hanno Schaefer, Sebastian Seibold, and Jörg Müler; European Journal of Forest Research

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Novel Forest Decline Triggered by Multiple Interactions Among Climate, an Introduced Pathogen and Bark Beetles, Carmen M. Wong and Lori D. Daniels; Global Change Biology

2016

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Fire Severity and Cumulative Disturbance Effects in the Post-mountain Pine Beetle Lodgepole Pine Forests of the Pole Creek Fire, Michelle C. Agne, Travis Woolley, and Stephen Fitzgerald; Forest Ecology and Management

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The Influence of Variation in Host Tree Monoterpene Composition on Secondary Attraction by an Invasive Bark Beetle: Implications for Range Expansion and Potential Host Shift by the Mountain Pine Beetle, Jordan L. Burke and Allan L. Carroll; Forest Ecology and Management

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Using Structural Sustainability for Forest Health Monitoring and Triage: Case Study of a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)-impacted Landscape, Jonathan A. Cale, Jennifer G. Klutsch, Nadir Erilgin, José F. Negrón, and John D. Castelloc; Ecological Indicators

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Long-Distance Dispersal of Non-Native Pine Bark Beetles From Host Resources, Kevin D. Chase, Dave Kelly, Andrew M. Liebhold, Martin K. F Bader, and Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Ecological Entomology

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Bark Beetle Effects on a Seven-Century Chronosequence of Engelmann Spruce and Subalpine Fir in Colorado, USA, Drew P. Derderian, Haishan Dang, Gregory H. Alpet, and Dan Binkley; Forest Ecology and Management

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Aftermath of Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in British Columbia: Stand Dynamics, Management Response and Ecosystem Resilience, Amalesh Dhar, Lael Parrott, and Christopher D. B. Hawkins; Forests

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Forest-Landscape Structure Mediates Effects of a Spruce Bark Beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) Outbreak on Subsequent Likelihood of Burning in Alaskan Boreal Forest, Winslow D. Hansen, F. Stuart Chapin, Helen T. Naughton, T. Scott Rupp, and David Verbyla; Forest Ecology and Management

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Recent Tree Mortality in the Western United States from Bark Beetles and Forest Fires, Jeffrey A. Hicke, Arjan J. H. Meddens, and Crystal A. Kolden; Forest Science

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Evaluating Crown Fire Rate of Spread Predictions From Physics-based Models, C. M. Hoffman, J. Canfield, R. R. Linn, W. Mell, C. H. Sieg, F. Pimon, and J. Ziegler; Fire Technology

 

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